Kidney Disease: Causes, Anatomy, Functions, Condition Healthy Life Style
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Kidney Disease: Causes, Anatomy and Functions, and Condition

Kidney, the kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs on each side of the spine, below the ribs and behind the abdomen. Each kidney is between 4 and 5 inches long, about the size of a large fist.

The job of the kidneys is to filter your blood. Eliminate waste, control the water balance of the body and maintain good levels of electrolytes. All the blood in your body goes through them several times a day.

Blood enters the kidney, debris is removed and salt, water, and minerals are adjusted, if necessary. The filtered blood returns to the body. The waste is transformed into the urine, which accumulates in the kidney socket, a funnel-shaped structure that opens into a tube called the ureter into the bladder.

Each kidney contains about a million small filters called nephrons. It is possible that only 10% of the kidneys work and you do not notice any symptoms or problems.

If the blood stops flowing to a kidney, part or all of it could die. This can lead to kidney failure.

  1. Cortical blood vessels
  2. Interlobar blood vessels
  3. Renal artery
  4. Renal vein
  5. Renal pelvis
  6. Cortex
  7. Ureter
  8. Renal column
  9. Major calyx
  10. Medullary pyramid
  11. Minor calyx

Kidney Function

The structural and functional microscopic unit of the kidney is the nephron. It treats the blood that is supplied through filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion; and the consequence of these process is the production of a urine

The functions of the kidney can be shared into three groups: Secretion of hormones, Gluconeogenesis and Extracellular homeostasis of pH and blood components. A nephron is a functional unit of the kidney.

Secretion of Hormones

Hormone secretion. The kidneys release a variety of hormones, which include erythropoietin, calcitriol, and renin. Erythropoietin is released in response to hypoxia (low oxygen levels in tissues) in the renal circulation induce erythropoiesis (production of red blood cells) in the bone marrow.

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The process of secretion of a substance, in particular, a substance that is not a waste, blood or cells: secretion of hormones; secretion of milk by the mammary glands. A substance is secreted, such as saliva, mucus, tears, bile or a hormone.

What hormones affect the kidneys?

Angiotensin II goes to the adrenal glands in the upper part of the kidneys, where it stimulates the production of aldosterone. Aldosterone helps the kidneys retain sodium and water, which increases fluid volume and sodium levels.

What hormones affect kidney function?

The kidneys produce two major hormones, vitamin D and erythropoietin. Renin is an enzyme, also produced by the kidneys, that plays an important role in the hormone renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which helps control blood pressure.

Gluconeogenesis in Kidney

Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that results in the production of glucose from carbon substrates that are not carbohydrates, such as lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids.

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Where does gluconeogenesis occur?

In vertebrates, gluconeogenesis occurs mainly in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex of the kidneys. In ruminants, this has to be a continuous process(treat). In many other animals, the process comes in view during periods of fasting, starvation, low-carbohydrate diets, or intense exercise.

What is the main goal of gluconeogenesis in the kidney?

Lactate enters the bloodstream and is absorbed by the liver and oxidized to pyruvate. Gluconeogenesis change pyruvate into glucose that returns to the bloodstream, restoring that used by erythrocytes.

What is the process of gluconeogenesis?

Gluconeogenesis is a pathway that the body uses to create glucose from other molecules and an important pathway that allows the body to store the energy the brain needs as glucose. It is essentially glycolysis, which is the process of converting glucose into energy, in the opposite direction.

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Extracellular homeostasis

The kidneys are very vital for homeostasis (maintaining a constant internal environment) of the body’s extracellular fluids. Its basic functions include 1. Regulation of extracellular fluid volume.

How do the kidneys maintain homeostasis?

Urine can also contain sulfate and phenol residues and an excess of sodium, potassium and chloride ions. The kidneys help maintain homeostasis by regulating the concentration and volume of bodily fluids. For example, the amount of H + and HCO3 secreted by the kidneys control the pH of the body

What role do the kidneys play in homeostasis?

The kidneys eliminate metabolic waste such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine by producing and secreting urine. Urine can also contain sulfate and phenol residues and an excess of sodium, potassium and chloride ions. The kidneys help maintain homeostasis by regulating the concentration and volume of bodily fluids.

How do the kidneys work with other body systems to maintain homeostasis?

Although the kidneys use several hormones to regulate homeostasis, they maintain a balance by releasing hormones to regulate blood pressure and by altering sodium and electrolyte balances to maintain adequate levels of fluids in the body.

Kidney condition

Any condition that affects the kidneys. A healthy kidney is an abdominal organ involved in the elimination of blood waste. The kidneys can be affected by inflammation, infection, obstruction, structural defects, wounds, etc.

These are the 6 main symptoms of kidney disease:

Fatigue: being tired all the time

The construction of healthy kidneys produces a hormone called erythropoietin (a-rith’-ro-po’-uh-tin), or EPO, which tells your body to make red blood cells that carry oxygen. As the kidneys fail, they produce less EPO. With less red blood cells to carry oxygen, the muscles, and brain tire very quickly. This is anaemia and it can be treated.

Feeling cold, when others are hot

Anaemia can make you experience cold all the time, even in a warm room.

Shortness of breath: very little effort

Breathing difficulty can be related to the kidneys in two ways. First, additional fluids can accumulate in the body in the lungs. And secondly, anaemia (shortage of red blood cells that carry oxygen) can leave your body without oxygen and without breath.

Difficulty thinking clearly

Anaemia related to kidney failure means that your brain is not getting enough oxygen. This can cause memory problems or concentration problems.

Feeling very irritating

The kidneys remove waste from the bloodstream. When the kidneys fail, the storing of waste in the blood can cause severe itching.

Stomach upset, nausea, vomiting

A large accumulation of waste in the blood (uremia) can also cause nausea and vomiting. Loss of appetite can lead to weight loss.

What are the 5 stages of kidney disease?

Here are five stages of CKD and GFR for each stage:

Stage 1 with normal or high GFR (GFR > 90 mL/min)

Stage 2 Mild CKD (GFR = 60-89 mL/min)

Stage 3A Moderate CKD (GFR = 45-59 mL/min)

Stage 3B Moderate CKD (GFR = 30-44 mL/min)

Stage 4 Severe CKD (GFR = 15-29 mL/min)

Stage 5 End Stage CKD (GFR <15 mL/min)

What is the normal DFG for age?

Conventionally, it can be said that the normal values of the GFR far exceed 60 ml/min / 1.73 m2 in healthy subjects, at least before 70 years of age. However, we know that GFR decreases physiologically with age and that in adults older than 70 years, values below 60 ml/min / 1.73 m2 could be considered normal.

Is renal disease stage 1 reversible?

Stage 1 of chronic kidney disease. A person with stage 1 chronic kidney disease has a renal failure with a normal or high glomerular filtration rate (GFR) greater than 90 ml/min. Usually, there is no sign that the kidneys are damaged

Stage 2 CKD mild (DFG = 60-89 ml / min)

Stage 2 of chronic kidney disease. A person with stage 2 chronic kidney disease (CKD) has kidney damage with a slight decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 60 to 89 ml/min. Usually, there is no sign that the kidneys are damaged.

What are the symptoms of stage 2 kidney disease(infirmity)?

The most usual signs and symptoms of chronic kidney(renal) disease include:

  • anaemia.
  • blood in the urine.
  • dark urine.
  • the decrease in mental alertness.
  • the decrease in urine production.

Oedema: swelling of the feet, hands, and ankles (faces a severe swelling)

  • tiredness
  • hypertension (high blood pressure)

Stage 3A: chronic renal failure (GFR = 45-59 ml / min)

A person with chronic kidney disease in stage 3 has moderate kidney damage. This step is divided into two: a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for stage 3A is 45-59 ml/min and a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate for stage 3B is 30-44 ml/min.

How can I reverse step 3 CKD?

To begin, take a look at these eight diet and nutrition goals when you have chronic kidney disease in Stage 3:

  1. Count your calories: The right calories can prevent weight loss if you have a desirable weight or provide extra calories if you are underweight. Weigh yourself often and check if you need extra calories or less. Your dietitian will determine(ascertain) a desirable weight and monitor your progress.
  1. Eat the right types of fats: If you have cardiovascular disease or high blood cholesterol, unhealthy fats such as saturated fats and trans fats should be replaced by polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats of canola oil and olive oil. A limit is recommended for foods high in cholesterol.
  1. Watch for water retention symptoms: The fluid is not limited to stage 3 chronic kidney disease unless you have fluid retention. Sudden weight gain, shortness of breath, swelling of the feet, hands, and face, and high blood pressure are signs of fluid retention. These symptoms may indicate a decrease in kidney function and a decrease in urine production.
  1. Reduce your phosphorus intake: A diet that does not contain more than 800 mg of phosphorus can help reduce the risk of an excessive accumulation of phosphorus in the blood. Limit the intake of foods rich in phosphates or phosphate additives, such as organ meats, whole grain bread, processed foods, cola beverages, cheese, dried beans, liver, peanut butter, dairy products, and chocolate.
  1. Control your potassium levels: Generally, potassium is not limited to stage 3 of chronic kidney disease unless laboratory tests show that potassium is too high. Your doctor may make changes in medications or prescribe a diet low in potassium. Reduces the high level of potassium by limiting certain foods high in potassium and potassium chloride (found in salt substitutes and many low sodium foods): avocado, banana, melon, honeydew, legumes, milk, nuts, potatoes, seeds, products, and yoghurts.

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  1. Know your recommended daily protein intake: The recommendation for a protein intake of Stage 3 is 0.8 g / kg of body weight, the same recommendation for a healthy 150-pound adult. Whether your doctor recommends a high-protein or high-protein diet, it’s important to make sure your protein intake comes from quality sources such as egg whites, fish, poultry, meat, soy and more. a small number of dairy products. People with a vegetarian or vegan diet can find It is easy for meat consumers to limit their protein intake, but they will have to control more closely their phosphorus and potassium intake.
  1. Decrease your sodium intake:  Limiting salt and sodium-rich foods reduce hypertension, helps blood pressure medications work more effectively, and treats fluid retention. The sodium recommendation for stage 3 chronic kidney disease is 1,000 to 4,000 mg / day. Talk to your doctor or dietitian to determine your recommended daily allowance.
  2. Stay on course! When you have stage 3 chronic kidney disease, it is important to know your diet and your nutritional goals. Fulfilling the prescription of your doctor or dietitian could help delay the progression of kidney disease and improve your quality of life.

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Stage 3B Moderate CKD (DFG = 30-44 ml / min)

A person with chronic kidney disease in stage 3 has moderate kidney damage. This step is divided into two: a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for stage 3A is 45-59 ml/min and a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate for stage 3B is 30-44 ml/min.

What foods should I avoid with Stage 3 chronic kidney disease?

Here are 17 foods that you should probably avoid during a kidney diet.

  1. Pretzels, chips, and cookies
  2. Dates, grapes, and plums
  3. Chard, spinach and green beets
  4. Packaged, instant and prepared meals
  5. tomatoes
  6. Potatoes and sweet potatoes
  7. Apricots
  8. pickles, olives and sauces
  9. Processed meat
  10. Oranges and orange juice
  11. Dairy products
  12. Bananas
  13. brown rice
  14. Whole wheat bread
  15. Canned food
  16. lawyers
  17. Tails of dark color

Serious stage 4 CKD (DFG = 15-29 ml / min)

A person with chronic stage 4 nephropathy has advanced kidney damage with a severe decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 15-30 ml/min. It is likely that a person with stage 4 chronic kidney disease requires dialysis or a kidney transplant in the near future.

Treatment when you have step 4 CKD (optional)

People with stage 4 CKD who will need treatment are informed of their choices, which include:

Hemodialysis: this is a treatment that can be performed in a centre or in a patient with the help of a care partner. A dialysis machine removes a small amount of blood from a patient through an artificial dialyzer membrane called artificial kidney or for cleaning toxins that the kidneys can not eliminate. The filtered blood is returned to the body.

Peritoneal dialysis (PD): unlike hemodialysis, PE is a needleless treatment and a care partner does not have to help during treatment. The RFP can be done at home or at work.

Kidney transplant: this is a preferred treatment that does not require as many dietary restrictions as hemodialysis or Parkinson’s disease.

Stage 5 final stage CKD (DFG <15 ml / min)

A person with stage 5 chronic kidney disease has the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with a GFR of 15 ml/min or less. In this advanced stage of kidney disease, the kidneys have almost completely lost their ability to do their job effectively, and they need dialysis or a kidney transplant to live.

What are the symptoms of stage 5 renal failure?

Symptoms that may occur in stage 5 of chronic kidney disease are:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • A headache
  • Be Tired
  • Unable to concentrate
  • Itching
  • Make little or no urine
  • Swelling, especially around the eyes and ankles
  • Muscle cramps
  • Tingling in the hands or feet
  • Changes in skin colour
  • Increased skin pigmentation

Type of kidney disease

A List of Kidney Diseases

  • Abderhalden–Kaufmann–Lignac syndrome (Nephropathic Cystinosis)
  • Abdominal Compartment Syndrome
  • Acetaminophen-induced Nephrotoxicity
  • Acute Kidney Failure/Acute Kidney Injury
  • Acute Lobar Nephron
  • Acute Phosphate Nephropathy
  • Acute Tubular Necrosis
  • Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase Deficiency
  • Adenovirus Nephritis
  • Alagille Syndrome
  • Alport Syndrome
  • Amyloidosis
  • ANCA Vasculitis Related to Endocarditis and Other Infections
  • Angiomyolipoma
  • Analgesic Nephropathy
  • Anorexia Nervosa and Kidney Disease
  • Angiotensin Antibodies and Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome
  • Anti-TNF-α Therapy-related Glomerulonephritis
  • APOL1 Mutations
  • Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndrome
  • Aristolochic Acid Nephropathy, Chinese Herbal Nephropathy, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy
  • Arteriovenous Malformations and Fistulas of the Urologic Tract
  • Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia
  • Bardet-Biedl Syndrome
  • Bartter Syndrome
  • Bath Salts and Acute Kidney Injury
  • Beer Potomania
  • Beeturia
  • β-Thalassemia Renal Disease
  • Bile Cast Nephropathy
  • BK Polyoma Virus Nephropathy in the Native Kidney
  • Bladder Rupture
  • Bladder Sphincter Dyssynergia
  • Bladder Tamponade
  • Border-Crossers’ Nephropathy
  • Bourbon Virus and Acute Kidney Injury
  • Burnt Sugarcane Harvesting and Acute Renal Dysfunction
  • Byetta and Renal Failure
  • C1q Nephropathy
  • C3 Glomerulopathy
  • C3 Glomerulopathy with Monoclonal Gammopathy
  • C4 Glomerulopathy
  • Calcineurin Inhibitor Nephrotoxicity
  • Calliopsis Laureola Poisoning
  • Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Acute Renal Failure
  • Cardiorenal syndrome
  • Carfilzomib-Induced Renal Injury
  • CFHR5 nephropathy


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